Inner Conflicts II

Improve mood, motivation, and success by resolving internal conflicts between states. Generate resourceful states more consistently by resolving habitual (automatic) negative states. Robert Dilts, a well-known NLP researcher and master trainer, explains the issue of inner conflict:

“In a typical situation, if we are prevented from reaching a goal due to an external impasse, we maintain our focus on the outcome, inhibit any “antithetical ideas” and continue to attempt other avenues or strategies in order to attain the goal. If there is an internal conflict, however, the “debate ground” shifts inward, and a battle begins between the two parts of one’s self. As Freud points out, the external frustration is supplemented by internal frustration. It is as if the person is “caught between a rock and a hard place.” “And when the fight is between two parts of one’s self, one can never ‘win’.”

Notice incongruencies between conscious and subconscious communication.

This is done while working with a client on an issue that involves conflict between two directions, but has poor awareness of one of the opposing states. When exploring the conflict, observe incongruence between the person’s conscious and subconscious communication. By this we mean what the person says versus what their body is giving away. For example, if the person shows anger, but denies being angry, you will see body language that contradicts their denial. Anger physiology will show as jaw and lip stiffness, squinting of the eyes, shoulder tension, and maybe even resentment or tension in the voice. 

Sort into polarities

Some of these incongruencies will have something in common with other incongruencies. If the person really was not angry, they would have relaxed shoulders and other physiology of a “not angry” state. This observation provides you with a polarity involving two states. On one end of the polarity is shoulder tension, and, on the other, is relaxed shoulders. The polarity is that of a range of shoulder tension from high to low. Simmering anger is high tension, not being angry is low tension. Discover more incongruities between these two states, and sort them into polarities as we did with shoulder tension. 

To find these incongruities, you are seeking physiology clues. A good way to detect them, is to have your client enter the very state that their body language is telling you they are not really into. For example, with the “not angry” state that the angry client insists that they are in, you could help them align with that state by remembering, in first person, what it is like to watch a child play with a very friendly dog. Once they are fully in the “not angry” state, find out what is happening with every sub-modality associated with that state. In other words, what they are experiencing in that state. 

Now you have moved beyond body language to include sub-modalities that your client is able to describe for you. This would not have been possible with a client who is not aligned with the state they claim to be in. This technique is important, because, when people are out of alignment, they can have difficulty being verbally or detailed, or, instead, unconsciously create distractions in order to avoid being aware of their schism. The subconscious mind is very creative when it is tasked with this kind of deception. 

Sort these incongruencies into their polarities through means such as spatial sorting, symbolic sorting, rep systems, roles, and Satir Categories (i.e., blaming, placating, or rationalizing). If you don’t know about all of these, stick with what is more obvious to you, such as how your client positions them in their mental space and what sub-modalities they associate with each state. How the state feels is often the easiest one to elicit. 

As your client talks about what these states mean to them, note what beliefs appear to drive each state. Thinking of the states as parts may help you derive beliefs that are empowering or limiting. You are likely to find more than a few negative or limiting beliefs. 

To summarize by using an example, fix “depression” in its “space” by asking your client to recall a recent time that they felt depressed, and enter into that state for a few moments. During that time, elicit sub-modalities and any other aspects that distinguish these states from each other. For example, list the predicates, key words, eye accessing cues, and physiology  cues that you can observe in connection with that state.As you explore the original issue, you will discover additional states with aspects that can be placed onto polarities. As you do the sorting, you eventually get to states that do not share enough polarities or similar attributes. At this point, you begin resorting. On the other hand, some states, such as depression and passion, will be competitive, that is, so incompatible that they cannot be placed on the kind of polarity that we are working with here, because they would be too incongruent. 

Integrate the incongruencies. 

Put each state where it belongs. For example, place depression and happiness in their unique spots, (i.e., their respective spatial locations). Then group similar states in these locations. 

a. Make a connection between the polarities. Have your client group the sensations of the states. To do this, your client must focus on the kinesthetic aspect of the state, bringing it to the foreground, rather than the imagery, sound, and concepts. In doing this, your client is moving all of the feelings of depression, for example, into a limited space, thereby experiencing it as something that they can control. This makes these states and their feelings less overwhelming and builds in your client a sense of empowerment and hope. 

b. Be sure that your client is in a very positive state before proceeding. Your client should be in a very confident state. Be sure that their positive states are stronger and collectively larger than the other polarities. Have your client move into a meta position. From there, bring the polarities together in a way, what can create new solutions.

Inner Conflicts

Resolve inner conflicts so you can engage consistently in a desired behavior. This technique uses logical levels and NLP resources in an interweave that deserves some explaining. We encourage you to study this thoroughly. In essence, you will learn to leverage higher levels of criteria in order to produce your desired behavior, despite the resistance, distractions and temptations that have typically sabotaged your efforts in the past. Often inner conflict arises from the way higher logical levels override lower ones. This is possible because a desire often gets its drive from more than one level. When these levels work at cross purposes, we can end up sabotaging our higher intentions through procrastination, misplaced priorities, and other self-defeating behavior. Consider this example: If you derive personal meaning from helping others, and you have made a career of it, then your Identity level (one of the logical levels) provides much of the drive for your career choice. At the same time, you desire to express your skills and knowledge and to act on habitual behavior. These desires drive your career actions on a day-to-day basis. This example shows three different logical levels driving behavior: 

Identity (as a helper), Skills/Knowledge (applied to helping), and Behavior (helping). But, what if you want to get a better job so that you can make more money and contribute more by gaining more responsibility in your chosen field? Let’s say the answer is that you need to return to school to learn more and get an advanced certification or degree. Although you may be able to say that this goal is connected to your Identity level, it is not enough if that understanding is only an intellectual, conscious one. If your strongest connection with going to school is only happening at the Skills/Knowledge level, then you’ll have a problem. That’s because your Identity level is currently filled with actually carrying out helping behaviors on a day-to-day basis. 

This “Identity override” (the Identity level overriding the Behavior level) leaves you procrastinating on going back to school, while your current work absorbs the lion’s share of your energies and creativity. 

This technique is designed to help you connect a higher level, such as your Identity level, to an important aim, such as going back to school. This creates a strong subconscious drive that causes you to move forward much more easily and creatively. As you’ll see, the power of this technique comes from its clever integration of several different NLP resources. 

In addition to Logical Levels, this technique can use Spatial Sorting and the Counterexample Process. It will also sharpen your awareness of rep systems and cognitive strategies. It has broad applicability and much flexibility in the hands of an experienced Neuro Linguistic Programming practitioner. 

Prepare the page

On a piece of paper, in a landscape (sideways) position, create four columns with the following headings. 

Leave room at the top of the page for two items: Behavior and Override.

Column 1) Capability

Column 2) Belief

Column 3) Desired Behavior

Column 4) Identity

Note the desired behavior.

At the top of the page, write down a behavior that you want to engage in, but that you somehow self-prevent from carrying out. For example, studying as much as you need to.

Note the motivating factors.

In column #1, Capability: list the factors that give you the most motivation to engage in the positive behavior. Emphasize factors related to skills, possessions, and knowledge that build and result from your capability to do this behavior. For example, getting into a top-notch grad program, getting into a great career, or having a nice house. Note the strategy, meta-program patterns, and sub-modalities that tell you that each criterion is motivational. For example, the idea of a great career goes along with the eager excitement in the solar plexus. The things that feed into that positive feeling include the desirable challenge and a desire for prestige. Refer to the meta-programs appendix as needed.

Note the preventing factors.

In column #2, Belief: list the factors that prevent you from carrying out the desired behavior. 

Emphasize thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, and values, including any that seem irrational. Include any resistance or objections that pop up and take you away from your desired behavior, even if you have never put them into words before. 

Take yourself through the process of getting pulled away from your desired behavior and analyze it as though it was a formal decision-making process. 

Look for strategies, meta-programs, and sub-modalities that drive these decisions. 

Look for the criteria that the decisions are based on. For example, “I do not study as much as I need to because it is stressful and I run out of time.” 

Another would be, “When I study and the phone rings, it seems important to answer, even though I know it will be a friend who will distract me from studying. 

The sub-modalities are that the ring is in the center of my attention (auditory), and gives rise to feelings (kinesthetic) of relief and excitement that are a very attractive alternative to studying. This creates a sense (kinesthetic) of urgency, so I fail to think (self-talk) about setting limits on this. I don’t think of myself turning off the ringer (visual).”

Note the override criteria.

Carefully think about your criteria for your desired behavior from column #1. 

Think about how these criteria make you aware of criteria at higher levels, including the Identity level. 

Jot down any ideas that occur to you in the appropriate column or on a separate sheet if you like. 

Continue until you are able to select one criterion that is the highest and most powerful of all. 

Write this one down in the space just below the behavior and put a big star beside it or highlight it. In seeking this high criterion, it might be helpful to ask, “What strikes me as being so important that I would always have time for it, and that stress would not prevent me from doing?” 

Note what personal value of yours that it satisfies so that it achieves this superior level of importance, (e.g. “preventing tooth decay is a value that means I never forget to brush my teeth twice a day.”). Elicit the strategy, meta-programs, and sub-modalities that drive this criterion. For example, preventing tooth decay is represented as seeing bad teeth (visual constructed) and getting a bad feeling about it (kinesthetic). Refer to the meta-programs appendix as needed.

Let’s discuss how these levels play out in the example of the student. His problem was that his context contained a convenient temptation (phone calls from friends) and an aversive (the discipline required for studying). As a result, the student’s behavior appears to be at odds with his identity as a student, and even with his higher values and vision. 

Since the conflict is coming from the lower levels (behavior and context), you can intervene at any of several higher levels, and at the same levels. 

For example, students often intervene at the behavioral level by using behavior modification to “outgun” the effects of temptations in their environment. 

For example, one student made a rule that he could not leave his study area without doing twenty chin-ups. The chin-ups served as an “aversive stimulus” that reduced his drive to escape to the kitchen for snacks. He enjoyed the side benefits of losing weight and building up his arms. Prior to this intervention, the snacks tempted him away from his studies too often and he gained weight. This intervention uses context (the chin up bar and the requirement to do chin ups) to affect behavior, just as the problem caused the context to affect behavior. However, unlike the problem, the solution was driven by his identity as a student and as a physically fit person. 

You could say that he used leverage from his identity level in order to produce success at the behavioral level. 

In this case, he did not directly confront his behavior with beliefs about the value of studying. Instead, he used the identity level, and a rather superficial version of it, pertaining to his physique and attractiveness, in the service of his desired behavior, which was eventually studying, not pumping up his biceps. It doesn’t matter much where the motivation comes from, as long as you are able to engineer the behavior you desire. 

Also note that, by using behavior modification principles, the student gained leverage over his behavior at the subconscious level. You will see in the remaining steps how to engineer the most effective behavior.

Leverage the process by anchoring the behavioral content from override.

Go back to column #1, Capability, and anchor the behavioral content there. 

Really get in touch with carrying out the behavior in a positive state (use the override criteria to help you). 

Anchor that positive state.

Apply the highest override criterion.

In column #4 (Identity), use the highest level criterion that you found by applying it at the Identity level. 

With the school example, you might say at the Identity level, “My identity as a helping professional is expanding and becoming more meaningful because I am attending the program I have chosen.”  

On the belief level, you might say, “I believe in life-long education, and I believe in the craft I am learning.” 

Brainstorm, and review what you have done so far to determine how your high-level, override criterion applies to your Identity level.

Engineer the desired behavior so that it is in harmony with all criteria levels, and fulfill the objectives of the desired behavior.

This step may mean a dramatic change of course, or some simple refinements to your desired behavior. Most likely, it will involve adding supportive activities and perspectives to make it ecologically sound and highly motivating. 

Bring your attention to column #3, and draw a line below what you have written so far. Write down a behavior here that fulfills (or at least does not violate) the criteria of all columns. 

You might want to start by brain storming all measures that you can take in order to enhance or add to your desired behavior so that it fulfills the criteria at each level. 

This way, you will come up with a main behavior for this column, as well as a collection of supportive behaviors and adjustments that will help to ensure that you succeed. 

Remember that brain storming means you open your mind to many possibilities. You may want to start on a separate sheet and exhaust your ideas, then return for more after letting some time pass. 

You might want to call some friends or a mentor to discuss this step. In making sure that your ideas are in harmony with your criteria, you might ask questions such as, “What ways are there for me to take part in a school program that will (from column #1, Capability) improve my income, skill, prestige, and (from column #2, Belief) allow me to continue the work I am doing now in a meaningful way and keep making a living?” 

Pick out the best idea for column #3. 

Map and adjust the override criteria and limiting beliefs.

Review your override criterion that you noted above the columns. 

Notice what sub-modalities give it power. Also, note what strategies it implies.

Observe what meta-programs give this criterion its shape. (Meta-programs are the higher level programs that affect how we think and perceive. For example, some people focus more on what they are avoiding, while others focus more on what they want.) 

Now take your revised desired behavior from column #3, and adjust the strategy, meta program, and sub-modality features of the criteria of the desired behavior to match the strategy, meta program and sub-modality features of the highest level (override) criterion. Do the same thing for the column #1 Belief criteria (the values and conditions that give the limiting beliefs a sense of legitimacy). This may seem like an odd request, but remember that you are harmonizing your desired behavior with criteria from all columns, and this adjustment will actually help to drive your desired behavior now that you are no longer waging an internal battle between conflicting levels of criteria.

Over the next few days or weeks, notice if you carry out the desired behavior enough to achieve the positive outcomes you intend it to, such as getting better grades so you can get into a good graduate program. 

How well have your interventions worked and how might you improve them? 

Are there other logical levels at which you should intervene? 

Discover and correct any ecological or other conflicts.

This technique can go very far in helping you achieve very useful depth of insight as well as valuable, creative, fresh solutions. It helps you develop capacities that are quite under-realized in most people. We strongly suggest that you make a project out of this technique for any really challenging or complicated situations in which you are trying to cultivate or engineer behavior that is more appropriate than what you do automatically. 

By keeping it handy and revisiting it from time to time, you are likely to find that it can go much farther than one time can achieve. Reviewing Dilts’ neurological levels can help generate ideas. 

What additional support or interventions might help you secure this new behavior? 

Use your environment to reinforce what you come up with. Posters, sticky notes, and recordings can all help reinforce and remind you. 

Recall the behavior modification example above. It takes advantage of context and behavior modification principles. It is not an obvious strategy, because it does not directly or obviously addresses the desired behavior or confront the undesired behavior. In working with a client, you can keep track of the details by writing them down yourself, while guiding the person to step into areas that represent each of the elements written. 

In this approach, the original one suggested by Dilts, the person steps into spots on the ground that correspond to each of the columns. This assists with anchoring and eliciting states. 

A common problem is to find that the criteria preventing your desired behavior occur at the same or higher levels than the criteria that support your desired behavior. When that happens, people feel mystified as to how to sort things out. Keep thinking it over and you will find a way. For example, put criteria that are on the same logical level side-by-side and keep asking what makes them different. 

At first, it might just appear to be that the desired behavior is more relevant to your long-term status, or it might bring a better version of the same benefits or a larger quantity of the same benefits. But if you keep asking why that matters, you will come to values at a higher level, even at the identity level. Get as many as you can, and explore ways to make them more compelling.

Empowerment

Get much more control over your mind and your life, by resolving the meta-model violation known as nominalization. This works because nominalization removes the actor from the scene. If I say, “I have to go visit my stupid relatives,” I’m not saying who is in charge of the “have to.” If I decide to be empowered, I can say, “I’m going to make my mom happy by visiting my stupid relatives.” or, “I decided it wasn’t worth going through that misery.”  Even better, if you can say it honestly, “I’m going to create a completely new and mind-expanding experience with my relatives.” 

We nominalize when we turn verbs into nouns. If you talk about “the relationship,” it seems to have a life of its own. Where is your (and the other person’s) leadership and vision? Think about situations in which you feel less powerful. You might feel overwhelmed, frustrated, or coerced. Find a nominalization in the way you talk about the situation.

De-nominalize by turning at least one noun into a verb.

Find a way to turn at least one noun into a verb. This change puts someone into the driver’s seat. The more challenging or empowering it feels, the better. If it challenges you to take responsibility in some way, that is a special challenge to embrace.

Talk about it without nominalization.

Explore ways to talk about the situation without nominalization, and by including the verb(s) you identified. Instead of, “This job is killing my soul.” you might have, “I am super motivated to get a different job, and fast. I’m networking and telling everyone I meet to keep an eye out for good opportunities in my field.”

Do you feel that you are in a more meaningful, connected, empowered state?

Undetermined State Integration

Help your subject describe his or her state. Sometimes people simply can’t connect with their state to describe it. They will say things like, “I’m not sure what I’m feeling,” “It seems vague.” or “I feel dull.” (indicating that they are also becoming fatigued, physically or mentally). 

This technique comes to get a clearer statement that will enable you, their practitioner, to set a well-defined outcome for the session. 

Put your finger about one foot from the subject’s eyes.

Position yourself in front of the person and at eye level. 

Put your right hand about one foot in front of his eyes with your finger pointed laterally (not toward either of you). 

Guide the eye movement and blinking pattern.

Ask him to take a few deep breaths and then close and open his eyes, matching your finger’s movement rhythm. 

Start very slow, moving your finger from 90 degrees to about 45 degrees (downward motion), and then back up again. 

Alter the movements as indicated, and break state.

Repeat 5 to 6 times with increased rhythm until normal blinking rhythm is reached again. 

Then keep the finger motion, but move the hand to accessing cues Visual Constructed (up left) and later to Visual Remembered (up right). 

The purpose here is to activate the person’s brain through controlled eye movements. Now let him stretch and move freely, blinking fast several times and breathing normally.

Ask the questions in the manner indicated.

Ask the following questions and wait only two seconds for the reply. If he or she doesn’t respond immediately, offer the possible answers provided in the parentheses. 

Speak at the same rhythm as you notice as his eyes are blinking. 

Questions:

1. What would be the best feeling you’d like to have right now? (Curiosity, passion, calmness, excitement, decisiveness, relaxation, security, etc.)

2. How would you know if you felt it? 

What would be evidence for you, on the inside, that you’re really feeling X (the state they chose)? 

3. What would happen once you felt X? 

4. If you felt X, in which situations would it be most useful for you? (At work? With your kids? With your spouse? While you’re waking up?)

5. In which situations wouldn’t it be useful for you to feel X? And with what feeling would you replace it?

Continuous fatigue state

If your subject is still feeling fatigued and dull-minded, ask the following elicitation questions:

Was there a time in your past in which you recall feeling X?

How did you know back then that you felt X?

Could you show me how you would look if you were feeling X right now? 

What was it like to have that feeling? Can you feel it now?

Make sure your hand is not so close that it makes the person uncomfortable. Different people will have different comfort zones. If there is a possibility of epilepsy, such as when there is a family history, then refrain from using eye movement exercises. 

Have the person discuss with their physician whether such exercises are appropriate for them. 

The first set of questions should be asked and answered fairly quickly. If you give the person time to think, their own self-criticism is likely to inhibit them. If the person is agitated, this is not the right pattern to use. 

Consider using the “State Chaining” technique or “Collapsing Anchors.”

Mediation & Conflict Resolution

An ongoing disagreement, or a long lasting conflict between two people, can often be resolved by taking the discussion to a higher logical level. This technique uses logical levels to facilitate agreements. It can be useful in mediation and with groups.

Elicit meta-model information.

The following elements of questioning will help you create a meta-model of each party’s position, as well as to get the information you need in order to pace them and develop the rapport that you will need as a credible change agent.

a. Ask each person to boil down their argument to the outcomes that they desire.

b. Have them specify the values and beliefs underlying the outcome.

c. Ask what is most important and valuable about those values and beliefs.

d. Ask any additional questions that will help create a well-formed meta-model.

Identify higher logical level elements of the arguments, and reflect this. 

a. Notice the elements that their arguments have in common, and identify which of those occur at higher logical levels (see the appendix). 

b. State their positions in terms of their higher level agreements. 

c. See if you or the other parties can propose a solution that everyone can agree on.

If this is not yet possible, elicit a more productive state and move to higher-level motivations.

If it is too soon for such an agreement, consider the following: 

The more high-level agreements that you have brought to their attention, the smaller their disagreements will appear to them. The more you emphasize their most mature, intelligent agreements, the more you will be priming a mature, intelligent state for them to draw upon in resolving the problem. Help them come up with potential solutions by drawing upon these resources. Appeal to commonalties at a higher level than the one you previously appealed to in step two.

Get clear expressions of these higher outcomes from the parties.

Have the parties express their meta-outcomes, that is, outcomes at a higher level than the ones specified. This process was started in step one, but was not made into detailed outcomes. 

Confirm agreements that exist at higher levels, establishing a Yes set. Again, seek to resolve the conflict.

Get everyone into a yes set, continuously confirming agreements at these higher levels. When possible, seek specific agreements that will resolve the conflictY

Follow up as needed.

Once you have achieved an agreement, follow up to see that it is working out. You can establish a timeline for follow up with the parties involved.

Matrixing

Matrixing is a way to strategically plan your work. It uses NLP to generate your responses to the client on the fly. This means we can use NLP know how, such as analyzing the client’s meta-programs and repairing their meta-model violations. If you aren’t 100% on top of things like meta-model violations, the processes to follow will still make sense. 

A meta-programs are the cognitive patterns that an individual tends to emphasize in managing their mental processes. This establishes an important link between our thoughts and the sensory representations that NLP uses in so much of its work. You could say that meta-programs are the rules that govern our thought and decision-making patterns, especially in terms of how we select from our memories and environment in triggering and constructing those patterns. Put more concisely, meta-programs constitute the rules by which we select strategies (mental, behavioral, etc.) that we use to achieve our outcomes. 

One way to get a feel for someone’s meta-programs is to notice what they pay attention to. An example meta-program is “toward versus away from.” A “toward” meta-program derives motivation and perspective from moving toward something. A person on a diet would experience himself or herself moving toward their desired weight and appropriate foods. An “away from” strategy would emphasize eliminating fat and avoiding fattening foods or excessive eating. 

The meta-model asserts that we must exclude a great deal of information in order to function. When this exclusion takes place in a dysfunctional way, it can lead to problems such as overgeneralizing, as in bigotry. Such errors are called meta-model violations. One method of repairing such violations is to ask questions that require a more specific answer or that bring forth a contradiction. For example:

“If atheists are immoral, how do you explain this long list of atheists who have made great contributions to humanity?” 

or… 

“You say she hates you? What exactly do you mean by hate? I know she did you a favor yesterday.”

Matrixing for Complicated Problems

Matrixing means being relevant to complicated problems requiring a strategic response, rather than a formulaic one. This is in contrast to a common approach of NLP practitioners, which is to focus on a very specific problem, and apply a specific technique to the problem. This is not to say that such an approach is wrong. There can be a great benefit to the artful winnowing down of a vague problem into a specific, operational definition, and many NLP practitioners excel at this. Many of them also excel at selecting a technique from their NLP quiver to rapidly resolve the problem. However, not every person will receive adequate help if their problem must be the equivalent of a sliver in their finger, and there’s no reason to limit NLP’s contribution to that of a pair of tweezers. Many of the problems clinicians and coaches find are quite complicated. 

Some coaching clients may seem to have buried themselves in un-resourceful narratives and stories that they have become very attached to. Many clients will work with a coach on success or other life issues, but have mild mental health issues that are either left over after getting psychotherapy, or not yet bad enough to get the client to seek a therapist. The book, Shadow Syndromes talks about the way that “subclinical” issues can disrupt peoples’ lives without necessarily being readily diagnosable. We often call these clients “twilight” clients, because they may benefit from psychotherapy or medication, but are not necessarily motivated to explore that route. When they are, their residual problems don’t contraindicate coaching, but they can make them more challenging to the coach. Because such problems affect nearly everyone in some way, coaches should get to know enough psychopathology to help them understand their more stuck or confusing clients. This knowledge can be useful in many ways. It can help the coach respond in a more strategic way and help them have a more realistic sense of what will be needed. 

My Favorite Matrix

I’m tempted to call this a starter matrix, but it is so fundamental to thinking about problems. This matrix may look simple, but it is very flexible and can be used to formulate very complicated problems, especially if you use it in a mind map format. You can use it for an overview of all the life needs of a client, or use it to zero in on a specific problem. It supports holistic and strategic planning. It helps to bring your intent and next best actions into focus. Let’s start with the categories, and then an example.

1. Meaning: 

Examples include stigma, self concept, vision as a source of goals and meta-model violations.

2. Context: 

People, things, and situations in the person’s environment that affect them. 

3. Behavior: 

The actual behavior of the person, and any plans that have a strong emphases directly on behavior, such as behavior modification. Can include desired behavioral goals and habits. Can focus on ways that developmental issues have created behavior limitations or patterns. 

4. Physiology: 

A focus on what is affecting the client from a biological perspective. Can include lifestyle factors such as exercise and diet. The more you think in terms of evolutionary psychology and the “internal pressures” that this creates, the more you may find yourself thinking in terms of physiology. As you know, NLP has plenty to say about observing and influencing your client’s physiology, while thinking in terms of state management. Both coaches and therapists find that they can think more about physiology as they incorporate reprocessing techniques such as EMDR and EFT into their work. 

Now try this: 

Think of a client, or even yourself. On a fresh, blank sheet of paper (or some kind of mind mapping software) put the four categories near the center. From there, you can branch out and add the most important related issues. Continue to branch out until you have actionable items. Here’s an example… The name and some of the details have been changed to protect her privacy: 

Marcy is 30, hates her job, loves her husband, hates they way they get into arguments, feels kind of untrusting and judgmental of people, is very bright, is a really good sales person, is underemployed because her employer isn’t making very good use of her, and really wants to take her life to another level. She has trouble when a lot of little tasks and details come her way because of ADD. She has had counseling for ADD and has been reticent to take medication because it seems kind of creepy to her. 

Meaning

Mary is generally irked. The underemployment, overwhelm with details, and feeling intolerant of people that act petty, boring, or stupid, all make life less satisfying. She loves her husband, but he thinks and speaks in a very step-wise fashion. This is very difficult to tolerate for a person who thinks in hypertext. She realizes, though, that he is bright and successful, and his heart is in the right place. Coaching or counseling will need to help her find a more life-affirming and dynamic way to be a very smart person in a world that can seem pretty dumb. 

Context

Her need to improve her career is important here, because her context is a major source of her complaints. The results will show up here, but this is not necessarily the category where the real action will be. Changes in her attitude (Meaning), and strategies (Behavior) may be the keys that unlock her career potential, or help her convince her employer to make better use of her sales skills, which are excellent. 

Behavior

Her issues with the rest of humanity show up here in the sense that she does not have very satisfying relationships in her personal life, and she is not sure how to get into harmony with her husband. In addition to working in the Meaning category, behavioral strategies may be important. 

Physiology

Marcy has a lot of youthful energy, but the issues are taking their toll. Nonetheless, she brings a lot of energy to her job, her relationship, and her home projects. ADD has a physiological side, of course, and she will need to learn to cope with it, even if she takes medication. ADD coping methods will go in the behavior category. The prospect of medication, supplements, and other things that address ADD from a physiological angle go here. 

How a Treatment Plan Would Look

Here is an example of a plan for someone like Marcy. She has come in for coaching. She has had psychotherapy, and it has been helpful, but she wants to focus on success and lifestyle. Nonetheless, it if very obvious that there are emotional issues and ADD symptoms that loom large. 

Meaning

Goals: To get from irked to fun and strategic. Getting into harmony with people and her husband. By being fed up from her distracting judgmentality and impatience, she will probably come up with better strategies for making her relationships more satisfying. By being less distracted by feeling oppressed and under-appreciated at work, she will probably be able to come up with better strategies for her career as well. 

Methods: Metaphoric, reframing and other counseling techniques will be helpful. Reprocessing will be more helpful if we can connect with earlier experience that helped to establish her pattern of relating. Timeline work might be very helpful here. 

Context

Goals: To get from overwhelmed and under-appreciated to meaningful challenges that draw upon her gifts and inspire her to develop even higher skills. 

Methods: Sometimes it is necessary to get context changes in order to progress in coaching or counseling. In this case, it looks like the context change is a goal rather than a short-term objective. 

That means that the focus on methods will be in the other categories. Not that keeping an eye on the classifieds isn’t a good idea. 

Behavior

Goals: Round out her success with targeted strategies. The first two sessions created a strong impression that the short-term action is in the meaning and physiology areas. 

Methods: Coming in a close third is the area of ADD coping strategies. These strategies will probably do a lot for her attitude and feelings of resourcefulness as well. This should create an upward, self-reinforcing spiral. It is also important to add to her intimacy skills with her husband. But her thought patterns that bind her into less resourceful ways of handling her husband come first. 

Physiology

Goals: Reduce ADD symptoms and respond to old emotional triggers from a state of fresh mastery.

Methods: Consider medication (via a referral to a psychiatrist), supplements, exercise, and anything else that will help her with ADD from a physiological perspective. Direct her to sources of information for this. 

Do reprocessing to help her generate a more resourceful state instead of being stuck in the irked state. NLP techniques will rely a great deal on state management during whatever processes are used.

Assertiveness

Assertiveness is a very important trait, yet people often fall into habits of being too passive or aggressive. These habits can be subconscious, and people often fail to realize how much they are losing and how many bad experiences come from poor assertiveness.

Analyze the non-assertive behavior.

Determine what the person does instead of asserting himself or herself in a specific situation. In addition to the behavior, uncover the chain of thoughts and other internal representations that take place prior to and during the non-assertive behavior. For verbal thoughts (self-talk), get a good sense of their position. For example, how much are their thoughts acting as a broadcast for someone else’s thoughts. And how much are they trying to preempt what other people might think? Dynamics such as these show problems with perceptual position misalignment. And this is a clue for you, by the way, to notice issues that you might want to handle with other patterns before continuing a process. 

As for the stronger sensory elements, look at sub-modalities as well. You are looking at what drives the person toward the non-assertive behavior. Do not just assume that the sub-modalities have to be from the known driver sub-modalities (size, location, etc.). It could be any type in any modality. Be thorough in your investigation of sub-modalities in this step, because that might determine the success of the whole procedure. 

Assess what stops the assertive behavior.

Notice any ways that an impulse to be assertive is stopped. One way to derive this is to simply mention two or three assertive behaviors that might apply to the situation. Then ask, “When you think of doing this, what happens?” The person is likely to describe a dominant rep system, such as the kinesthetic sense of feeling fear in their stomach, along with some thoughts. Help the person express these thoughts and develop them into specific beliefs such as, “If I asked for that, it would mean that I was a needy person. People like that are disgusting.” (Notice the nominalization regarding disgust. Who is disgusted, and why?) Clarify the ways that stopping assertiveness can be useful.

List ways the assertive behaviors can be useful.

Develop with the person a list of ways that one or more of the assertive behaviors can be useful. Make sure that this list appeals to the broadest possible spectrum of values that the person holds dear. Make sure that this includes as many selfish motives as possible, as well as any ways that the results of their assertive behavior would benefit any people or groups that the person feels are deserving. For example, if self care makes them more productive, they will be able to contribute more to the world in the long run. Also, their medical bills will be lower, so they can contribute more to their favorite cause. Be sure to include the pleasure of experiencing an assertive state that is free of guilt or other causes of shyness. As you are doing this step, be sure that you are using each element to foster a state of confident assertiveness in the person. 

Another issue to consider is morality and ethics. Your client might have other parts that object such a stream of thoughts, making oneself more important in one’s eyes. Allow these parts to speak up and use the Parts Negotiation pattern is needed to make sure they do not interrupt in the rest of this procedure. 

Expand the assertiveness state.

Bring the person’s attention to the ways they are beginning to experience an assertiveness state. This includes any rep system elements, including thoughts. Ask elicitation questions, such as—What do you see, hear, feel? Elicit sub-modalities as well, and maintain a high level of sensory acuity. Note which rep systems are most compelling, and of the thoughts, which values expressed by the thoughts are most compelling. Begin future pacing by, for example, asking the person to imagine carrying out assertive behavior buoyed by this state and fully expressing this state. What kind of posture, gestures and facial expressions would be expressed? 

Again, if you maintain a high level of sensory acuity, you would notice their posture, gestures and facial expressions and give them verbally as feedback to your client in order to prove that the process is already working. Include a fantasy of people reacting very normally and favorably to this behavior in order to reduce the fear and create positive expectations on the subconscious level. Since tone of voice is so important in assertiveness, have the person imagine the vocal tone, volume, and pacing that are likely to gain cooperation and make the assertive requests. Again, bring up the positive feelings that go with the assertive state and behavior. Be very supportive of these feelings, and help the person amplify them. Use the sub-modalities that were most influential on this specific client. 

Go through the timeline, generating examples of assertive behavior.

Have the person go through their timeline, thinking of many examples of assertive behavior. This includes any times that the person expressed an aspect of the assertive behavior. For example, they may feel badly about having said something meekly, but if they used the right words, have them focus on this very intently. The purpose of this is to modify the person’s self concept into that of an assertive person. This way they will have a greater expectation of being assertive, more permission to be assertive, and better competence at being assertive. They will also express assertive cues such as body language that set expectations in others. This will cause people to respond in ways that elicit more assertiveness in the person. 

Diminish the images of non-assertive behavior.

Bring the person’s awareness back to their images of not being assertive. These images may include memories and fears. Ask them to send those images behind the assertive images. Ask them to imbue the nonassertive images with the qualities of the assertive images. For example, if the assertive images have a more lively, colorful quality, have the person modify the nonassertive images to have that quality. Have them do the same with other modalities and sub-modalities, such as vocal tone and accompanying thoughts. Move unassertive feelings to the same location as the assertive feelings, and modify the unassertive feelings to match key aspects of the assertive feelings. Continue making these adjustments until the person feels very congruent with assertiveness, even though these unassertive elements were being processed. 

Future Pace.

Go back to future pacing, asking the person to imagine carrying out assertive behavior in various situations. Be sure that they bring the assertive state into the situation, and that their future images have the qualities of the assertive images that have been developed. Ask the person to give you feedback over the coming days or weeks about any changes in their behavior that have to do with assertiveness or anything else that they think is important.

Mirroring (method)

Enhance your ability to establish rapport and to model excellence. This technique builds a useful “second position” with another person. This skill is key in modeling others and for becoming intuitive in understanding the internal experiences of those you model. Here’s a quote about Mirroring and Rapport from the book NLP: The New Technology of Achievement, by NLP Comprehensive, Steve Andreas and Charles Faulkner:

“Fitting in is a powerful human need. We all have many examples of these behaviors, because we do them already. They are all based on some form of being similar, familiar or alike. Finding ways to be alike reduces our differences, and so we find the common ground upon which to base a relationship.” 

Select the subject.

Select someone for a conversation. Don’t tell them that you will be mirroring them.

Conduct the conversation while mirroring the person.

During the conversation, ask their opinions on various topics. Mirror their physiology, including factors such as the tenor and cadence of their speech, and body language such as gestures. Do this subtly. If you need help maintaining the dialog, use active listening. This involves showing that you understand what they are saying by rephrasing their contributions. Beginning with a phrase such as, “You mean…” or “So you’re saying…” As you mirror, add elements such as their breathing as much as possible. Notice how you feel as rapport between you two develops.

Exercise your rapport: Test your intuition and understanding of the person.

Test your ability to understand through rapport. Try out your intuitions about what they are saying. Can you guess their opinion before they express it? If you agree, try expressing the opinion yourself, and see how this affects rapport. If you express the opinion in a less certain manner, the person may gain pleasure from holding forth to reassure you that the opinion is correct, and demonstrate their mastery of the subject. This helps establish you as a positive anchor. Highly effective rapport can gain information about the other person that you can learn to pull out of your subconscious, making you feel as though you are psychic. This is very useful in modeling.

Exercise your influence by shifting your attitude and physiology.

Test your ability to influence others through rapport. Try shifting your attitude and physiology (e.g., breath pace, facial expression, and body language) in what you consider to be a desirable or possible direction. For example, shifting from a resentful or angry state gradually into a more constructive or powerful state. If you do this with some care, the other party is likely to shift with you. This has enormous value in areas such as sales, leadership and coaching. 

Explore these skills of “pacing and leading” in your relationships. Think of situations in which you could use these skills to improve your personal life or career performance. Notice what outcomes you get, and refine as you go.

Finding Positive Intention

Transform self sabotage into success. By discovering the positive intent behind a negative behavior or attitude, you can release tremendous energy and positive commitment. In his outstanding book Sleight Of Mouth: The Magic Of Conversational Belief Change, master trainer and famous NLP developer Robert Dilts says:

“At some level all behavior is (or at one time was) “positively intended.” It is or was perceived as appropriate given the context in which it was established, from the point of view of the person whose behavior it is. It is easier and more productive to respond to the intention rather than the expression of a problematic behavior.”

Define the problem. 

Briefly state the problem with enough detail so that it is clear in your mind. It may primarily be a situation, personal problem, or a challenge. Focus on defining the unproductive behavior. Get clear on why the behavior is not useful.

Reveal the Underlying Motives

Take a few moments to relax, breathe deeply and lay back. Now, go inside, imagine your mind has special internal messengers. In NLP, we call them “parts.” These are parts of your personality, which have characteristic tendencies or habitual behaviors. 

Find the part that is responsible for generating the unproductive behavior. Bring this part into awareness as though it was a complete personality. Remember that a part is an aspect of you. It is a collection of aligned motivations. 

A part is like a little personality inside of you. In order to be aligned and successful, you must not work at cross purposes with yourself. This requires negotiating or working with your parts. Now imagine that you can do a role playing game with this part. Ask the part what it wanted to have, do or become, through the negative behavior or attitude. What value or benefit was to come from this. Ask directly, “What did you wish for me to accomplish by doing this?”Take as much time as you need to imagine and listen to the part’s responses.

Get to the core motives.

Keep asking “why” and “what” questions to clarify the motives. Recycle each answer into a new question. Continue this until you feel that you have gotten to the core motives. You should identify a core belief along with the core value and core reasons for the behaviors or attitudes that, at first glance, seem to be unsupportive of you.

Illogical Thinking

In any coaching or therapy, momentum is very important. By momentum, we mean that a productive process is taking place at the correct tempo. Since NLP relies on state management, much of the time, and since states are dynamic processes, the pace of the steps in the intervention must be maintained. This key and basic move can allow you to move in a number of directions. It is an excellent set up for a reframe, for reprocessing, and as part of a hypnotic induction. In this pattern, we ask a simple question, “How do you know that you…” and guide the client into experiencing the sense modalities that make up their knowledge. This converts knowledge into something that can be questioned, added to, reformulated, deducted from, and made more dynamic.

It can help identify illogical thinking that the client can begin to question on their own, thus “owning” their experience with no incentive to resist the therapists “agenda.” It is an excellent gateway to body awareness patterns, because the senses are, well, senses. It helps the client become less attached to their mental narrative, acting somewhat like oil for a squeaky hinge. This is one of those sub-patterns that I mentioned in the introduction. It is a fragment of a larger, strategic series of moves. You’ll get some additional ideas about what to do with the results later in this section. 

Example I

Client: “I feel like such a complete loser.”

Therapist: “How do you know that?”

Client: “Well, it’s pretty clear when you have friends that…”

Therapist: “Wait, I mean, how do you know that you feel like a loser. How does it feel?”

Client: “Totally awful, I feel like giving up.”

Therapist: “Where do you feel that in your body? Where is the main center of that feeling, of the emotion or intensity?”

Client: “Well, really, it’s like my stomach is twisted up.”

Example II

Client: “I just can’t do it. I can’t face him, much less make any sense.”

Therapist: “As you think about doing that, or, I mean, not doing that, how do you feel if you were looking at him and trying to make sense?”

Saying “or, I mean, not doing that,” helps to forestall an objection such as, “But I can’t,” so you can maintain your momentum. Also notice the use of conjugations, mixing, “how do you feel,” an “if” phrase, and, “trying to make sense.”

Client: “I would shut down. I really hate him.”

Therapist: “So if you’re facing him and shut down, where is that feeling of being shut down? Where do you feel it mostly?”

Client: “All over. I just want to turn and go.”

Therapist: “So there is a motivation to action, to move, to escape. What is that like?”

Client: “Oh, well, I would probably feel panicked. Either that or start yelling at him.”

Therapist: “And where is the center of that feeling? Your heart? Your throat?”

Client: “It just moves right up through me from my heart.”

Linking Words

Erickson used words called conjunctions, words such as “and” in pacing and leading. He linked the pacing with the leading in a way that made it all seem to belong together, and this gave his leading commands a lot of impact. Consider this example. (The >> symbols set off the embedded commands.) “As you experience this training, and wonder how >>you will apply it successfully, you hear the sound of my voice providing the information so that >>you can enjoy mastery.” The pacing was that you experience this training, and that you wonder how successful you’ll be. 

This last bit about wondering can inspire a transderivational search for anything you are wondering and any ways that this training may make you feel challenged. 

Bringing up any doubts that you have about yourself and then embedding the command that “you will apply it successfully” is a mild anchor collapse as well as trance reinforcer. Nonetheless, the statement that “you are wondering” is also pacing your actual experience. 

Then I said, “You hear the sound of my voice providing the information.” which is still pacing. I finished with “so that you can enjoy mastery.” 

Giving the purpose of the information doesn’t seem like leading, but as you probably noticed, it is really a command to enjoy mastery. 

That is leading disguised as a simple statement about information.As you can tell, we are not only training you on a simple technique, but showing you how you can blend several techniques together. 

With experience, NLP practitioners’ skills become so multilayered that they rely on their subconscious minds to do most of the work. When they listen to transcripts of their own work, they can be surprised to hear how many techniques they are actually using at the same time. I say this because you can trust that this will happen for you as well. Remember that Milton Erickson had some very serious impairments, including pain and dyslexia, as well as delayed development because of polio. 

Mindfulness

Learn to create a light, momentary trance in yourself and other people for various uses. When your conscious awareness is focused entirely on internal experience, NLP refers to this as downtime. The downtime state is a subset type of trance phenomenon, and can help initiate or deepen trance. It can help you manage an interaction as a brief, light trance as occurs in a transderivational search. Many techniques are used to stimulate downtime, and they are used not only to produce trance, but also patience, introspection, and receptiveness. Uptime, on the other hand, refers to a more worldly state of awareness that emphasizes external awareness that is effectively informed by internal awareness.

Restrict your environment

Arrange a distraction-free environment, because this pattern requires focus. 

Internalize Focus with Rep Systems

Direct your attention inward, attending to each of your internal representational systems (the sub-steps below will help you). Attend to each of the modes as fully and as separately as possible. 

a. Notice your audio sense, including your inner voice, the sound of any memories or fantasies that arise. Remember something, and focus totally on the sounds involved.

b. Direct your mental focus to the visual mode. Include memories and fantasies that arise. Choose a memory and focus all your awareness on the visual aspect.

c. Attend to the emotional and physical senses as they arise for a while. Now think of a memory, and direct your attention to your emotional and physical feelings as they occur in the memory. Notice the difference between those feelings compared to what you feel ABOUT the memory, and what your body physically feels right now as you recall the memory. For example, how hard is the surface you are on right now?

d. Become aware of tastes. Come up with a memory of eating something tasty. Notice that you have various senses involved in the memory. Focus your mind entirely on remembering the taste. Notice how taste is more than one sensation, since much of what we associate with food has to do with its consistency, such as chewiness. 

e. Shift your awareness of this memory to smell. Notice how you can separate taste and smell.

You can anchor the experience of downtime. A good way to do this is to fold your hands and, as you experience all rep systems more fully, gradually increase the pressure of your palms pressing together. Once you have established palm pressure as an anchor, try using it for patterns requiring internal awareness, or with creating a basic trance or awareness meditation.

You can get better with internal sensory awareness by doing the above tip, and focusing on rep systems in a sequence. For example, imagine running through an imaginary sequence of behavior, rotating through the above rep systems. You could first try this on a simple task, such as walking. Notice what rep system is your weakest one, and do this exercise additional times with your focus on that system. To enhance your ability to integrate your senses, go through this exercise while practicing the attendance to all systems at once. You might start with rotating through very rapidly, or explore blending them much as you would adjust sub-modalities.

Mistakes Into Experience

Update a behavior that has not been re-evaluated, but that is not working optimally, or is dysfunctional.

Select a behavior that needs to be updated.

Choose a recurring behavior pattern that causes some kind of bad outcome. An example: attracting people who violate your boundaries (like someone who shows up to your birthday drunk and starts a fight—it ends up being all about them instead of your birthday).

Elicit the limited beliefs that are part of the behavior.

What beliefs encourage this behavior, or limit you from alternative behaviors or outcomes? 

Example: “Believing” that you should ask “Why?” over and over instead of coming up with a solution such as setting definite limits with a person who violates your boundaries.

Think of a negative outcome of this behavior.

What is a bad outcome of the behavior that has a lot in common with other bad outcomes of the behavior? 

In other words, it is a fairly predictable type of a bad outcome. For example, having a special day ruined by a person that you have not set limits with.

Compare the negative outcome to a worse potential outcome.

Think of something that is even worse, and that actually could have happened as a result of your behavior pattern, but didn’t happen.

Identify positive things that resulted from the negative outcome that you identified in step three.

Although the negative experience from step three was unfortunate, ask yourself what positive outcomes you can identify. For example, you may have discovered which one of your friends is the most insightful, because they clearly saw what was going on. 

Or perhaps you have gained a lot of knowledge through experience that, once you have put it into action, will constitute tremendous wisdom that you can use to enhance your life and the lives of others.

Express the positive intentions underlying the negative behavior.

Your behavior pattern is based on positive intentions of sort, despite the bad outcomes that have been resulting from it. 

Clarify these positive intentions and find a way to express them. They are worth writing down. 

Come up with positive intentions of the other people involved, even if they create negative outcomes or intervened in a way that you did not like.

Discover the positive significance of the bad outcomes.

What meaning can you take from the bad outcomes that have come from the un-resourceful behavior pattern? 

For example, you may have realized that you have some very good resources that, once they are used for the right purposes, will serve you well. You may have realized that there are limits to your stamina or capacity for boundary violations that are worthy of your respect and assertive protection. You may have realized that, once put into action, this wisdom will prevent a tremendous amount of suffering.

Re-experience the negative events while in the positive insight state.

Connect fully with the sense of wisdom, putting any feelings of hopelessness or cynicism aside for now. 

Realize that this is a positive state. Imagine taking that positive state through the memories you have of those bad experiences, seeing them from a new, resourceful perspective. 

Mark and store the wisdom gained from this pattern.

Take all the good energy of the positive state, and everything that you have learned from these experiences, and imagine transporting this to the place in your mind where you store the elements of your wisdom. 

Tag them in some way that makes them available to you when you encounter situations for which they are relevant, so that you can prevent bad outcomes and generate excellent outcomes.

Over the next days or weeks, notice any ways that the problem behavior changes. For example: Do you have better ways to prevent the typical bad outcomes that would come from the behavior? 

Example strategies might include being more effective at managing the expectations of others, being more realistic about what you can do, sensing risk factors early enough to take evasive action, and responding more objectively to a situation by keeping things in perspective.

Negative Thinking

Create resource states in people who tend to focus on the negative or disabling aspect of a situation. This technique utilizes the tendency of negative and resource experiences to have a great deal in common. They seem quite different because their differences are in the foreground of our awareness. This technique is a good example of creating resourceful states by linking to them from un-resourceful states. This technique is good for people who are too caught up in a negative reality because it works with sensory representations that are shared between the problem state and the ideal state. This technique is unique in that it does not focus on the foreground, or “driver” sub-modalities, as you would with the Swish pattern and others. It’s also for this reason that you should work slowly and methodically through the steps and note your client’s abreaction to the process. With the approach of the F/B pattern, you do not have a fight for dominance between the two foreground experiences. 

Many practitioners find this technique to be a gentle and almost magical experience. In my own private practice, the clients who have experienced this process reported it has been one of the most self-comforting experiences they’ve ever had. When their focus changes from a limiting or limited frame to a resourceful perception, you can tell it in their eyes and their posture. Relaxation is one of the immediate benefits of this pattern, but it is also just the beginning of the wonderful results it brings about. 

Chose a limiting response.

Choose a clearly definable situation in which you have an automatic limiting response. 

An example of this is flying in an aircraft when this causes panic attacks.

Notice your foreground and background awareness.

a. Notice your foreground awareness. 

As you imagine this experience, notice what is in the foreground of your awareness. What aspects are you most aware of at the time that you experience your limiting response? 

The panicking air passenger may be aware of the sound of the engines revving up in preparation for take off. 

Check all rep systems and sub-modalities for what is standing out.

b. Notice your background awareness. Notice what is in the background of your awareness. 

What are you not typically very aware of during your un-resourceful automatic response? 

These must be things that are not limited to the situation, or that you might experience in a situation in which you have a very resourceful response. 

Typically, you focus on the most pleasant body sensations that you can find, such as the aliveness of the soles of your feet, or the color of the walls.

Select a counterexample.

Find a good counterexample to your un-resourceful response. 

This will be a time when you could well have had the un-resourceful or limiting response, but you did not. 

For example, memories of flying without panicking would provide counterexamples. 

If there is no counterexample, you want to find the closest situation that you can. 

For example, if you have been in a bus or a train relaxed, not feeling anxious at all, then you have a good counterexample because of the similarities between the interior of a plane and that of a bus (seating, other people, length, engine sounds, jostling). 

Associate into the experience.

Explore the foreground and background of the counterexample.

a. Explore the foreground of the counterexample. 

Discover the aspects of this experience of which you are most aware, that is, that are in the foreground. 

Intensify the positive experience and anchor it. (We’ll call this anchor A1.) 

Foreground experiences may be things like a curious internal voice, or a dissociated image of the environment, or a sense of desire for the engine to wind up because it means that you are going to move forward.

b. Explore the background of the counterexample. 

Get in touch with the features that are in the background of both situations (this is the common ground experience). 

This may range from body sensations such as the soles of the feet to similarities between the external perceptions.

Associate the background and the foreground feature of the counterexample, and connect this state with the foreground of the original situation. 

Weld a strong association between the background and foreground feature in your counterexample situation. 

You can do this by focusing on the background feature and firing the A1 resource anchor. 

Now connect this with the foreground of the original situation. You can use suggestions to accomplish this.

For example: “The more you attend to the feeling of the soles of your feet, the more you can experience how your curious internal voice becomes louder and clearer. 

And as your awareness shifts to the environment of the bus and its engine, increasing speed, you more easily maintain an image of the inside of the airplane.”  

As you can see, we are linking the common background and the positive state with the foreground of the situation in which you had experienced a limiting response.

Focus on the common ground experience of the original experience.

Return to the original experience, and focus on the common ground experience that you found in (4b). 

For example, you could place yourself back into the airplane as the engines are beginning to rev, and focus your awareness on the soles of your feet and the color of the walls there. 

If this does not improve the limiting response, then try one of these strategies:

Option 1. Find a more powerful fitting counterexample, and repeat the pattern from step (2a). Or…

Option 2. Return to step (2b), and strengthen the association between the common ground elements and the background features of the counterexample.

Focus on the foreground features of the original situation from step (1a). You should experience the positive state from your counterexample experience. 

You can use instructions such as: 

“Now you can place yourself into the seat in the airline, actually focusing your full attention on the sound of the engine and the sense of acceleration of the plane.”

Parts Negotiation

Win the battle of will power and succeed with inner alignment. Eliminate self-sabotage and liberate energy for commitment and innovative problem solving. Enjoy the pleasures of life, knowing that you are leading a balanced life. This happens when your parts are working together effectively. A part is a constellation of motives and attitudes, and can be largely subconscious. It may be irrational according to your consciously-held standards. It includes a state that you can recall experiencing and associate into when needed.

Select the behavior. 

Select a behavior that you feel is detracting from your success or excellence, and that represents two aspects or parts of you.

Identify the parts.

Determine what part primarily supports this behavior and prevents alternative behaviors. 

Also identify the part that creates your concern about this behavior. This second part is expressing your distress at not achieving something or at being poorly aligned with your higher values. 

Specify the outcomes that the parts desire.

Describe what each part wants. Think in terms of outcomes. You can identify with (or associate into) a part, and speak from its point of view to get a rich expression of outcomes in terms of VAK, values, and situations that trigger the part. Do this for one part at a time. 

What outcomes does it promote? 

This can include positive outcomes, even if it is failing to produce them. Don’t assume that a part actually intends to produce negative outcomes. They may merely be side effects. However, if there are gains (like avoiding effort or confrontation of some kind) from the negative outcomes, then that is a clue as that the part may be causing (or at least failing to pre-vent) these negative outcomes.

Identify the meta-outcomes that the part is contributing to.

As you’ll recall, a meta-outcome is a higher-level outcome. For example, if a part wants an outcome of eating carbohydrate-rich food before bedtime, the meta-outcome might be that it has learned that this will reduce your anxiety from having unstructured time at night, and even help you sleep. If you thought the meta-outcome was to make you fat, this is probably actually an unintended out-come. 

On the other hand, some people feel vulnerable when they lose weight. In that case, the meta-outcome of getting or staying fat would be to feel less vulnerable, and perhaps attract less interest from the opposite sex as an immature means of being protected from child abuse that actually ended a long time ago.

Create inter-part understanding.

Make sure each part understands the positive values and roles that the other part is responsible for. 

Convey to each part how their behavior interferes with the activity of the other part, and how this lies at the heart of the problem.

Negotiate an agreement.

Negotiate an agreement between the parts. Start with a question such as, “If the other part agrees to refrain from interfering with you, will you refrain from interfering with the other part?”  

Get an internal sense of the response. Work with these parts until they reach an agreement. 

The better you understand the needs that these parts fill (by understanding their positive intentions and roles), the more effective you will be at facilitating this negotiation.

Seal the deal.

Ask each part for a trial period during which it will commit to cooperating. Also, get a commitment to signal you if it is dissatisfied for any reason. That will be a point at which negotiation will be needed again.

In the coming days and weeks, see if your problem behavior improves and if you have new, more resourceful behaviors. Notice any ecological problems or other nuances that require you to do more parts negotiation. Notice if there are any additional parts that need to be involved in negotiating on this issue.

Pleasure Reduction

Break out of addictions, compulsions, and obsessions by reducing the pleasure they create. It is useful for behaviors that are based on real needs but have become excessive.

Select an “overused pleasure.” 

Pick something that you need to reduce or eliminate.

Determine the meta-state levels that give this meaning for you.

In the center of a sheet of paper, write down the pleasurable activity. 

Draw a circle around it. 

Think of the pleasure, and ask, “What positive meaning and values do I give to this pleasure?” 

Write each answer briefly in the space immediately around the circle. 

Think of each answer as a kind of state that embodies feeling and meaning pertaining to this pleasure.

Repeat this to derive higher levels of meaning.

For each of the answers, ask the same question, and surround it with the answers you get.

Take in the full enjoyment gestalt.

Review all the answers, experiencing them as a complete profile for a kind of happiness that drives the behavior in question.

Reduce the meaning and enjoyment.

Determine which of the meanings is the most important in driving you to excess. 

Do this by placing your hand over one answer cluster at a time. 

For each cluster, ask, “If I could take away this cluster of meta-states, how much would it reduce the pleasure?” 

Continue to do this, until you clearly see which meanings exaggerate the importance of the pleasure, and which are more intrinsic to the pleasure, that is, more essential or basic to its real meaning. For example, health is a core value for eating, while having something to do while watching television is not a core value for eating.

Future Pace this reduced meaning and enjoyment.

Think of something that can reduce the pleasure of the activity. For example, seeing yourself getting fat by eating too much. Imagine yourself engaging in the activity, and say to yourself, for example, “This is only food. I can enjoy it nourishing me, but that’s all.” 

When another kind of pleasure or meaning slips into your mind, imagine the negative factor, such as getting fat. If the behavior is something that you need to eliminate completely, that you would say something like, “This meth-amphetamine is only a way to try to feel more joy and vigor. I can allow healthy alternatives to fill my mind.” 

Of course, this technique is not intended to substitute for any treatment that is required for addiction or compulsion. It is intended to help.

Generate other sources for the highest meta-level meaning states that you identified in step two and three.

STEP into the higher-level meta state, which is a combination of all the high level meanings you found in steps two and three. 

Fully experience the pleasurable nature of this state. Invite your creative part to show you other ways to experience this pleasure, and to create the meaning that these pleasures come from. 

Generate the sense that it is fully possible to live a life filled with this pleasure, but without excess.

See how well this technique reduces the selected behavior to an appropriate level, and how well it helps you create pleasure and meaning through healthy pursuits.

Problem Solving Strategy (II)

This technique helps a team of two or more people resolve a problem by creating a shared experience of an appropriate resource. The idea here is that if all involved persons are aligned with each other, any conflicts they may have had between themselves are no longer a factor in their effort to solve a given problem. This technique is not only for business teams; you can use it by working with members of the same family or even couples. When there’s a problem to be solved by more than one person, their shared interest and alignment alone might give all of them a stream of creative ideas for solving the issue. Using such a strategy might also help to mediate conflicts.

Identify a resourceful experience.

Think back to a recent time in which you’ve had an experience you could define as resourceful. It should be an event in which you were fully congruent and competent, you’ve been acting like a master and you have achieved your outcome. 

Associate into this memory. See what you saw, hear what you heard, feel what you felt and notice how this acquired resourceful feeling actually feels like. Feelings can be expressed in terms of movement, so where and from where does this feeling go/come from?

Pre-mirroring a shared resource. 

Stand up facing your partner. Demonstrate the movement of your resourceful feeling to your partner. 

Show him or her how it feels. 

Do not speak, just move your body to illustrate the feeling. Stay associated with the memory. 

Post-mirroring a shared resource. 

Remain in the 1st position (associated) and mirror your partner’s response to your movements. That is, mimic your partner’s movements. 

Move to 2nd position.

Exchange places with your partner. Move to 2nd position and act as if you are him or her. Be sure to notice the movement you’ve elicited from yourself in step two, it will change. 

Move to 3rd position. 

Move to the observer position (third position), and carefully observe the both of you. What is similar? What seems different? Note the similarities and differences in the expression of the resourceful feeling’s movement that you and your partner show to each other. 

Back to 1st position, facing same direction. 

Move back to the first position, fully associated with the resourceful memory. You and your partner should now face the same direction, standing side by side. Now both of you begin again the resourceful feeling’s movement (each their own), and continue until you find a similar move. It can be anything, long or short, rapid or slow. This is the “we” zone. 

For teams: repeat with pairs.

If you’re doing this technique with multiple teams, work in pairs and then combine them. Repeat in the same manner so that all four, six, or eight, and so on, are eventually aligned with a shared movement that gives each his or her own subjective resourceful experience, but at the same time it is a shared one. 

Testing is easy. It involves the solution of the problem at hand! Team up and work on the problem; every time you face a conflict, re-group the same direction format and use the shared movement maneuver. If you feel a sense of “we are going to solve this one together,” you have accomplished this exercise successfully. If not, it needs to be repeated, perhaps with a stronger subjective resourceful experience of each team member. When working with teams of people that you don’t know personally, work hard first on establishing group rapport with them and establishing your position as a leader. Even if the team’s current leader (a boss, a manager, a supervisor) is present, make sure that he or she knows in advance that you’re taking this approach in order to help the group come together and not to take over his or her responsibilities or authority. The best way to initially establish leadership is to use the one-up-man-ship concept. 

That’s a concept that has been in use by churches for years. Notice how the priest is standing always higher than the public, always in fancier and special clothing, always looking calm and in control, always moving with intention, and always speaking with confidence. 

You can do the same in any setting. In business situations, dress as if you own the place and you’re the richest guy around. Walk in a consistent rhythm, not too fast and not too slow, look around and speak to mere strangers with confidence and never ever apologize. Even if you’re late, do not say “I’m sorry I’m late, but I had this or that….” Say something like, “I know I’m late so we’d better start now.” 

Problem Solving Strategy (I)

This technique is the first of a series of innovative problem-solving strategies. This one uses the power of metaphor. You will need to have a good handle on metaphor in order to do this pattern.

Select the problem, step into the problem position, associating into the problem.

Consider a problem that you feel you need to approach in a fresh way. Choose a location in front of you to step into, that you will anchor to this problem situation. Step into that position and associate into this problem, experiencing how it happens in first position (through your own eyes).

Step into a meta-position.

Select another position that will serve as your meta-position, where you will view the problem from a transcendent or distant position. Step into this position. 

Experience a rich resource from a resource position. 

Think of a resource situation that is unrelated to the problem. The situation should help you access a very rich and compelling resource state. For example, it could be an activity that gives you a strong sense of self, mission, creativity, or passion. Step into a new position that will now serve as your resource position. Fully associate into the resource experience.

Create metaphor for the problem, but that is based on the resource position.

Come up with a metaphor for your problem situation. In other words, create a new, fantasy problem that is a symbol for your real problem. Your new, fantasy problem should be inspired by the resource activity, its context, and your resource state. For example, if skiing was your resource activity, then a real problem such as difficulty concentrating could be symbolized by getting your skis crossed up. The ski problem is now a metaphor (symbol) for the concentrating problem.

Imagine solving the metaphoric problem. Observe the resulting changes in your experience.

Maintain your distance from the problem situation, and imagine solving the metaphoric problem. For example, you would come up with a solution to crossing up your skis by developing good coordination for parallel skis by focusing on controlling one of the skis so that the other naturally follows. Notice how this solution calls forth any changes in your physical state, internal strategies, TOTEs, and so forth.

From your meta-position, apply the metaphoric solution to the original problem.

Now step back into your meta-position. Explore how you would take the solution that you just created (for that metaphoric problem) and think metaphorically in order to translate it into a solution in the actual problem situation. For example, focusing on body language and controlling one of your skis to get parallel skiing is like clarifying your goals and reasons for focusing your mind on your studies. 

Step into the problem location and check for results.

STEP into the problem situation location, and see if you have dissolved your impasse. 

Repeat, using other resource states.

Repeat this process, using other resource states applied to the same problem. This brings in a variety of your resources so you approach the problem from very different angles.

Recognition Expression

Naturally, it’s important for clients to feel that you “get” them. But among the most important things for you to get are the serious binds and traumas that they experience. When a client mentions something that is profoundly important such as that, you should draw upon your life experience and flash a sign of recognition that shows your client that it registered and that you are not judging them or becoming defensive in some way.

First, you must be on the lookout for these profound disclosures. Many times, a client will mention something without an emotional emphasis. Still, they are likely to look to see how you respond. If you missed the content, that look should signal you to tune into the profundity of what they just revealed. When you notice a profound disclosure, here are some excellent ingredients for your response:

1) Inhale while slightly extending your upper back and tilting your head up with your mouth part way open and eye brows slightly lifted.

2) Exhale fully. When half way exhaled, acknowledge this in a way that conveys an, “oh that…” quality.

For example:

“Ah, attorneys…”

or

“With years lost, right?”

or 

(slightly shaking head) “It’s just scary how many people are going through this now.”

or my favorite:

“Isn’t that some-thing?”

You don’t want to be dishonest, of course. If you really don’t know what the experience is about, convey how important it is to you to know more about what it involves and what impact it has had. Either way, you’ll probably need to be learning more about what the experience means to your client, as in how it colors their challenges of today.

Relationship Clarifying

This technique helps you identity characterological adjectives (CA’s). CA’s encode basic characteristics of relationships. Each CA implies a counterpart. For example, the CA of “victim” implies the counterpart of “victimizer.” Getting to the essence of a dyadic relationship opens the gateway to understanding the dynamics of the relationship and how the two parties contribute to enduring patterns, including patterns that are dysfunctional.

Select a difficult person or situation.

Come up with a person that you have trouble communicating with, or a situation that gets in the way of you being creative and productive in getting desirable results. In such a situation, you would feel stuck.

Get a typifying word from third position.

Imagine that you are observing the situation from a seat in a movie theater. Allow your mind to come up with a word that captures the essence of the situation, such as “obstructive” or “narcissistic.”

Place yourself onto the screen and into this situation. 

Observe your own behavior and come up with a word that captures the essence of your reactions and involvement with this situation or person. For example, “reactive” or “gullible.”

Isolate the CA’s

Think of the two words or phrases that you came up with, such as “obstructive” and “reactive” or “narcissistic” and “gullible.” 

Notice how these two words or phrases are counterparts to one another. You have gotten to the essence of the dyad by isolating the characterological adjectives.